All Names： diazoxide，Hyperstat，Proglycem oral Suspension，Eudaxen
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INDICATIONS AND USAGE
PROGLYCEM (ORAL DIAZOXIDE) is useful in the management of hypoglycemia due to hyperinsulinism associated with the following conditions:
Adults: Inoperable islet cell adenoma or carcinoma, or extrapancreatic malignancy.
Infants and Children: Leucine sensitivity, islet cell hyperplasia, nesidioblastosis, extrapancreatic malignancy, islet cell adenoma, or adenomatosis. PROGLYCEM may be used preoperatively as a temporary measure, and postoperatively, if hypoglycemia persists.
PROGLYCEM should be used only after a diagnosis of hypoglycemia due to one of the above conditions has been definitely established. When other specific medical therapy or surgical management either has been unsuccessful or is not feasible, treatment with PROGLYCEM should be considered.
Patients should be under close clinical observation when treatment with PROGLYCEM is initiated. The clinical response and blood glucose level should be carefully monitored until the patient's condition has stabilized satisfactory; in most instances, this may be accomplished in several days. If administration of PROGLYCEM is not effective after two or three weeks, the drug should be discontinued.
The dosage of PROGLYCEM must be individualized based on the severity of the hypoglycemic condition and the blood glucose level and clinical response of the patient. The dosage should be adjusted until the desired clinical and laboratory effects are produced with the least amount of the drug. Special care should be taken to assure accuracy of dosage in infants and young children.
Adults and children:
The usual daily dosage is 3 to 8 mg/kg, divided into two or three equal doses every 8 or 12 hours. In certain instances, patients with refractory hypoglycemia may require higher dosages. Ordinarily, an appropriate starting dosage is 3 mg/kg/day, divided into three equal doses every 8 hours. Thus an average adult would receive a starting dosage of approximately 200 mg daily.
Infants and newborns:
The usual daily dosage is 8 to 15 mg/kg divided into two or three equal doses every 8 to 12 hours. An appropriate starting dosage is 10 mg/kg/day, divided into three equal doses every 8 hours.
Frequent and Serious:
Sodium and fluid retention is most common in young infants and in adults and may precipitate congestive heart failure in patients with compromised cardiac reserve. It usually responds to diuretic therapy (See DRUG INTERACTIONS).
Infrequent but Serious:
Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar nonketotic coma may develop very rapidly. Conventional therapy with insulin and restoration of fluid and electrolyte balance is usually effective if instituted promptly. Prolonged surveillance is essential in view of the long half-life of PROGLYCEM (See OVERDOSAGE).
Other frequent adverse reactions:
Hirsutism of the lanugo type, mainly on the forehead, back and limbs, occurs most commonly in children and women and may be cosmetically unacceptable. It subsides on discontinuation of the drug.
Hyperglycemia or glycosuria may require reduction in dosage in order to avoid progression to ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar coma.
Gastrointestinal intolerance may include anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, ileus, diarrhea, transient loss of taste.
Tachycardia, palpitations, increased levels of serum uric acid are common.
Thrombocytopenia with or without purpura may require discontinuation of the drug. Neutropenia is transient, is not associated with increased susceptibility to infection, and ordinarily does not require discontinuation of the drug. Skin rash, headache, weakness, and malaise may also occur.
Other adverse reactions which have been observed are:
Cardiovascular: hypotension occurs occasionally, which may be augmented by thiazide diuretics given concurrently. A few cases of transient hypertension, for which no explanation is apparent, have been noted. Chest pain has been reported rarely. Pulmonary hypertension has been reported in neonates and young infants (see WARNINGS).
Hematologic: eosinophilia; decreased hemoglobin / hematocrit; excessive bleeding, decreased IgG.
Hepato-renal: increased AST, alkaline phosphatase; azotemia, decreased creatinine clearance, reversible nephrotic syndrome, decreased urinary output, hematuria, albuminuria. Neurologic: anxiety, dizziness, insomnia, polyneuritis, paresthesia, pruritus, extrapyramidal signs.
Ophthalmologic: transient cataracts, subconjunctival hemorrhage, ring scotoma, blurred vision, diplopia, lacrimation. Skeletal, integumentary; monilial dermatitis, herpes, advance in bone age; loss of scalp hair. Systemic: fever, lymphadenopathy. Other; gout acute pancreatitis/pancreatic necrosis, galactorrhea, enlargement of lump in breast.
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